Marcel Lajos Breuer (21 May 1902 – 1 July 1981), was a Hungarian-born modernist, architect, and furniture designer. At the Bauhaus he designed the Wassily Chair and the Cesca Chair which is “among the 10 most important chairs of the 20th century.” Breuer extended the sculptural vocabulary he had developed in the carpentry shop at the Bauhaus into a personal architecture that made him one of the world’s most popular architects at the peak of 20th-century design.
Mies was a director of the Bauhaus, a seminal school in modern architecture. After Nazism‘s rise to power, and with its strong opposition to modernism (leading to the closing of the Bauhaus itself), Mies went to the United States. He accepted the position to head the architectural school at the Illinois Institute of Technology, in Chicago.
Mies sought to establish a new architectural style that could represent modern times just as Classical and Gothic did for their own eras. He created a new twentieth-century architectural style, stated with extreme clarity and simplicity. His mature buildings made use of modern materials such as industrial steel and plate glass to define interior spaces. He strove toward an architecture with a minimal framework of structural order balanced against the implied freedom of unobstructed free-flowing open space. He called his buildings “skin and bones” architecture. He sought an objective approach that would guide the creative process of architectural design, but was always concerned with expressing the spirit of the modern era. He is often associated with his fondness for the aphorisms, “less is more” and “God is in the details“.